Tag Archive | Supreme Court judges

Don’t Tempt Citizen To Take Law Into His Hand: Prez – By Mukesh Jhangiani

                                                                                                               February 23, 2008

English: President of India

President Pratibha Patil (Photo: Wikipedia)

Don’t Tempt Citizen To Take Law Into His Hand: Prez

By Mukesh Jhangiani
United News of India

New Delhi (UNI) – Stressing the need for ”incorruptible justice,” President Pratibha Patil today cautioned against tempting the common man ”to take law into his own hand.”

”We cannot allow a situation where the common man is tempted to take law into his own hand and subscribe to the deviant culture of the lynch mob,” she said inaugurating a conference on Judicial Reforms.
She was emphatic that ”the formal adjudicatory machinery has to reign supreme.”
Noting that India’s judicial administration is not without ”blemishes,” Mrs Patil stressed the need to ”introspect whether our judicial machinery has lived up to” expectations.
She asked her audience, made up mostly of judges and lawyers, not to be ”touchy” and face issues squarely.
”Time has come when we as stakeholders, without being unduly touchy and sensitive to criticism… collectively introspect the causes of the ills of judicial administration and find solutions squarely,” she said.
The event presided over by India’s Chief Justice K G Balakrishnan was addressed among others by Law and Justice Minister Hans Raj Bhardwaj and Bar Council of India chairman Gopakumaran Nair.
The two-day conference organised by a Confedration of Indian Bar to discuss the ”disquieting” delay in delivery of justice has more than half of Supreme Court judges listed among speakers.
India’s justice system has in recent years been a focus of much public debate and comment over such concerns as delays, huge backlogs, shortage of judges, unending judicial vacancies and opacity, especially in the area of judicial hiring and accountability.
Alluding presumably to numerous conferences and seminars on reforming the justice system that appear to get nowhere, President Patil remarked: ”We talk incessantly about delays.”
”But now the time has arrived to launch a crusade against the scourge of arrears. Both the Bar and the Bench as equal partners in the administration of justice must address themselves to this problem.”
”Admittedly,” the President went on, ”the realm of judicial administration is not without its own share of inadequacies and blemishes.
”Time has come when we need to seriously introspect whether our judicial machinery has lived up to its expectations of walking the enlightened way by securing complete justice to all and standing out as the beacon of truth, faith and hope.”
Touching on a key issue, Mrs Patil said, ”case disposals are excruciatingly time consuming. This agonising delay has rendered the common man’s knock on the doors of justice a frustrating experience.
The issue of delay in courts has been debated for decades, without much avail. Experts believe lawmakers must take an initiative to sharpen laws and make them truly deterrent.
Mrs Patil called for making legal procedures ”simple, streamlined, rational, easily understandable and commonsensical.”
She reminded members of her erstwhile tribe that lawyers were trustees of justice and ”must set high standards of probity and rectitude.”
On another key area, she said citizens’ access to law ”remains limited due to prohibitive costs of quality legal advice. It is commonplace to hear that law has become the luxury of the rich.
”Legal aid can go a long way in helping the indigents secure justice,” she said adding that the present system ”needs to be improved.”
She reminded that alternative dispute resolution mechanisms need to be encouraged, but ”cannot aspire to substitute the formal courts.”
She said she recently came across the Karnataka High Court’s Bangalore Mediation Centre where 86 mediators had settled more than 1,000 cases in a year, taking an average 131 minutes per case– which ”is worthy of emulation.”
Justice Balakrishnan concurred that Judicial Reforms was a subject ”so much of talked about but too little done.”
Balakrishnan said India had a nationwide network of more than 14,000 courts– about 12,500 judge working strength– dealing with 40 million cases.
He said each judge handled on an average nearly 4,000 cases, which ”is too high as compared to the average load per-Judge in other countries.”
He acknowledged that ”the general impression of the people is that a large number of cases are being delayed and, if any case is filed, it would take years to get a relief.
”This impression about the performance of Indian Judiciary is not fully correct,” Justice Balakrishnan asserted, but went on to acknowledge that some 60 per cent cases were more than a year old.
He said 90 per cent of delayed cases were pending in subordinate courts.
He suggested setting up a national planning and management system for administration of justice and added that the Bhopal-based National Judicial Academy was preparing a case management system to avoid delays.
He also suggested:
— Legislative reform to remove the bottlenecks that adversely affect adjudication;
— Strengthening the Bar;
— Strengthening legal education;
— Legislative reform to strengthen judges’ powers to control judicial processes to ensure just and efficient outcomes in line with international reforms; and
— Satisfactory framework for judicial accountability.
He offered the suggestions as ”broad outlines” to be discussed and designed by competent people.
Justice Balakrishnan also drew attention to a source of overcrowding in courts.
”In a large number of cases pending in Courts, especially in higher Courts, government is one of the parties either as defendant or as appellant.”
He blamed such litigations on lack of proper governmental administration, pointing out that if authorities took impartial decisions, citizens would not normally be driven to litigation.
”Lack of proper and good governance largely contributes to the number of cases in subordinate courts,” Justice Balakrishnan said.
”When it comes to disposal of cases, the delay is disquieting,” Confederation president Pravin Parekh said, citing case arrears now close to 30 million.
He counted 46,926 cases pending in the apex court, 37,00,223 cases pending in high courts and 2,52,85,982 cases pending in district and subordinate courts.
The seminar will be attended by some 1400 delegates, including 14 sitting judges of the apex court, which has a strength of 26.
UNI MJ KD KN2045

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How ‘Functional Felony’ Creeps Into Judiciary : CJI – By Mukesh Jhangiani

                                                                                                                March 14, 2005

CJI R C Lahoti

How ‘Functional Felony’ Creeps Into Judiciary : CJI

By Mukesh Jhangiani
United News of India

New Delhi (UNI) – Personal visits to Judges’ residences, dinner invitations from lawyers and political pressures are some of ways in which ”functional felony creeps into the judiciary,” India’s Chief Justice has cautioned.

As a counter, Justice Ramesh Chandra Lahoti has stressed such time-tested judicial ethics as independence, impartiality, integrity and propriety.

Justice Lahoti was delivering the Inaugural M C Setalvad Memorial Lecture on Canons of Judicial Ethics organised by the Bar Association of India recently.

It was an evening given to remembering one of India’s finest lawyers– a ‘grand’ practioner, who charged ‘reasonable’ fees irrespective of stakes and respected Judges, but declined Judgeship.

The hall packed mostly with judges and lawyers heard a message from former Supreme Court Judge V R Krishna Iyer: ”Today, when the decline and fall have become deleteriously visible in the two sister professions, the memory of Setalvad will be a necessary admonition.”

The ethics topic sat well with 2005 dubbed the Year of Excellence in Judiciary. Judicial misconduct in India has no legal remedy.

Codes of ethics have been tried time and again, Justice Lahoti said, adding that if required to make a reference to such documents, he would ”confine myself… to three”:

— The Restatement of Values of Judicial Life adopted by the Chief Justices’ Conference of India, 1999

— The Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct, 2002

— The Oath of a Judge as contained in the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India.

As Justice Lahoti spelt out the documents it became clear that a number of Judges are already in violation of one or another of the canons of ethics.

Take Canon 4 of the Restatement: A Judge should not permit any member of his immediate family, such as spouse, son, daughter, son-in-law or daughter-in-law or any other close relative, if a member of the Bar, to appear before him or even be associated in any manner with a cause to be dealt with by him.

Over a year ago, the Bar Council of India (BCI) asked the government to transfer 130 High Court Judges who have relatives practising in courts in which they function. That meant almost one in four HC Judges. India’s 21 HCs between them had close to 500 Judges in place, the remaining positions being vacant. No action ensued.

The BCI is the apex statutory grouping of India’s 800,000 or so lawyers.

The trouble, experts say, is that a code of ethics cannot be enforced.

Indeed, as Law and Justice Minister Hans Raj Bhardwaj reminded audience, ethics cannot be foisted on anyone and should be left to the institution to evolve or embrace.

Nor does law in India make a proper provision to discipline Judges.

One option provided is impeachment, which, experts say, is more a political remedy than legal. It failed the only time it was invoked in 1992 against a Supreme Court Judge accused of corruption.

With Congress Members of Parliament under a whip to abstain in the vote to impeach Justice V Ramaswamy, Parliament virtually abdicated its duty to ensure accountability in Judiciary.

That was not perhaps the first time an Indian Judge had misbehaved. It certainly was not the last.

A spate of allegations has surfaced over the years involving HC Judges– in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bombay, Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta and Punjab and Haryana– in bribery, sex and abuse of office, resulting in a few cases to transfer, removal, even arrest.

In one bizarre episode, dozens of HC Judges took leave en masse because two of them were asked by their Chief Justice to explain why they took complimentary membership from a club, which was a litigant.

One of Justice Lahoti’s predecessors, Justice Sam Piroj Bharucha told a lawyers’ meet in Kollam, Kerala three years ago that ”more than 80 per cent of the Judges in this country, across the board, are honest and incorruptible.

”It is that smaller percentage that brings the entire judiciary into disrepute. To make it known that the judiciary does not tolerate corruption in its ranks, it is requisite that corrupt Judges should be investigated and dismissed from service.”

A year later, Justice Bhupinder Nath Kirpal told a judicial colloquium that Judges ”are also Indian citizens who come from the same aggregate as those in the legislature and the administration.”

”Therefore,” Justice Kirpal said, ”there are also instances where corruption and incompetence have also pervaded the judicial establishment that cannot be denied.”

But as Justice Lahoti pointed out, ”The Judge can ill-afford to seek shelter from the fallen standard in the society.”

The trouble, experts say, is that in absence of a clearly laid down law, opacity takes over where will to cover up asserts itself.

Former Chief Justice Jagdish Sharan Verma, during whose tenure the Supreme Court Judges adopted the resolutions on Values of Judicial Life in May 1997, has called for a clear law to discipline errant Judges.

In a radio talk show aired two months ago, Justice Verma said: ”Time has come for enforcing judicial accountability.”

Asked to explain his insistence that the process be conducted by the judiciary itself, he said any external effort would be dangerous for judiciary’s independence.

Justice Verma said he sent the resolutions in December 1997 to then caretaker Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral, requesting enactment of such a law. ”It has not happened so far.”

Some two months ago, Bhardwaj announced a Group of Ministers set up to suggest steps to strengthen the Judges Inquiry Act 1968 as part of an effort to ensure accountability in governance.

Asked after the Lecture as to when the group will give its findings, the Minister told UNI it would probably be after the Budget session.

Corruption in their ranks is not the only issue Judges must reckon with: they have a huge workload– 24 million pendencies– and inadequate strength– 14,000 judicial officers from district level upwards, as against an estimated need of 50,000, topped by a large many vacancies.

Experts question lingering HC vacancies considering that the five member apex court collegium expected to select appointees knows well in advance when a vacancy is due to arise.

Law Ministry officials say 222 HC positions were vacant against an approved strength of 719 last year when the United Progressive Alliance took over from the National Democratic Alliance.

Bhardwaj has said all vacancies will be filled by the end of this year.

”It is futile to think of excellence,” Justice Lahoti said in his lecture, unless judges– howsoever highly or howsoever lowly placed– ”were to follow the canons of judicial ethics.”

He recounted how veteran Judges handled ethical issues. One instance involved a dinner for Judges given by a lawyer– paid for by a client whose matter was to come up in the court a day later while another was about a Vacation Judge approached for ‘interim’ stay by an advocate who happened to be the son of the then Chief Justice.

The dinner story in former Chief Justice Pralhad Balacharya Gajendragadkar’s words: ”So far as I know, I and K C Das Gupta did not attend. Most of others did. The dinner was held on a Saturday at a hotel. On Monday next, before the Bench over which B P Sinha presided and I and K C Das Gupta were his colleagues, we found that there was a matter pending admission between the management of the hotel chain and its workmen.

”I turned to Sinha and said: ‘Sinha, how can we take this case? The whole lot of supervisors and workmen in the hotel is sitting in front and they know that we have been fed in the hotel ostensibly by the lawyer but in truth at the cost of the hotel, because the very lawyer who invited the judges to the dinner is arguing in the hotel’s appeal.’

”Sinha, the great gentleman that he was, immediately saw the point and said: ‘This case would go before another Bench’.”

Justice Iyer’s tale of the Vacation Judge: ”Naturally, since the caller was an advocate, and on top of it, the son of the Chief Justice, the vacation judge allowed him to call on him. The ‘gentleman’ turned up with another person and unblushingly told the vacation judge that his companion had a case that day on the list of the vacation judge. He wanted a ‘small’ favour of an ‘Interim stay’.

”The judge was stunned and politely told the two men to leave the house. Later, when the Chief Justice came back to Delhi after the vacation, the victim judge reported to him about the visit of his son with a client and his ‘prayer’ for a stay in a pending case made at the home of the Judge.

”The Chief Justice was not disturbed but dismissed the matter as of little consequence. ‘After all, he only wanted an interim stay’, said the Chief justice, ‘and not a final decision’.”

The incident, Justice Lahoti went on, ”reveals the grave dangers of personal visits to judges’ residences under innocent pretexts.

”This is the way functional felony creeps into the judiciary. A swallow does not make a summer maybe, but deviances once condoned become inundations resulting in credibility collapse of the institution.”

”A little isolation and aloofness are the price which one has to pay for being a judge, because a judge can never know which case will come before him and who may be concerned in it. No hard and fast rule can be laid down in this matter, but some discretion must be exercised.”

Audience were told of a lawyer who actually observed ethics.

Setalvad remained ever a lawyer and never agreed to become a judge. His fees ”were reasonable and did not vary depending upon the stakes involved in a case.”

He seemed to have instinctively grasped the true function of a Law Officer stressed in English Courts– Counsel for the Crown neither wins nor loses. He is there to state the law and facts to the Court.

Setalvad joined the Bombay Bar in 1911 and rose to occupy such high offices as Advocate General of Bombay 1937-42, Attorney General of India 1950-63, Chairman of the Law Commission 1955-58 and Member of Rajya Sabha 1966-72.

He also represented India before the Radcliffe Commission and the United Nations 1947-50.

”In those days,” Bhardwaj said, recalling the post independence era, ”there were no sharp practices at the bar at all. There was no need for such concerns. Such an occasion never arose.”

These are ”difficult times,” he acknowledged. Standards have ”gone down.”

He said the BCI had not performed its duty. The Bar has been ”left behind by many decades… So much adulteration has come into this institution.”

Many lawyers may not even know who Setalvad was, he remarked.

Organisers thanked Chennai-based Senior Advocate G Vasantha Pai, a former BAI General Secretary, who contributed Rs 15 lakh to conduct the lecture annually, for ”giving us back” Setalvad.

UNI MJ MM CS1100

 

Jurisprudence To Shudder At ! – By Mukesh Jhangiani

                                                                                                                                        April 22, 2009

Jurisprudence To Shudder At !

By Mukesh Jhangiani
United News of India

New Delhi (UNI) – Labour litigation in India may have hit a new low with workmen fired 30 years ago and ordered reinstated even by the highest court getting no redress– only another court notice.

Critics say the matter pertaining to three workmen of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous State, is a reflection of what Indian workforce is up against– even without a licence to hire and fire.

Mahendra Singh, Veer Pal Singh and Jhamman Lal were engaged by UP State Electricity Board as ‘muster roll employees’ between July 1977 and January 1978. Their services were severed in January 1979.

According to court documents, a labour dispute was raised in 1985 which the UP government referred to the Labour Court at Agra in July 1987.

The UPSEB deposed before the Labour Court that the workmen were ”engaged only… to carry out the required work”– ”never appointed” in its service.

The Labour Court took eight more years to determine that each employee had worked more than 240 days in a year but got neither the statutory notice nor retrenchment compensation.

In December 1995, Presiding Officer S P Singh dubbed the sackings ”not valid” and ordered each workman reinstated ”within 30 days” and paid Rs 8,000 each ”towards the back wages.”

Counting from 1979, Rs 8,000 amounts to barely Rs 500 a year– or Rs 41 a month.

Although India’s Industrial Disputes Act 1947 provides up to six months imprisonment for ”any unfair labour practice” as well as costs to victims, neither provision was exercised.

Experts say that is not unusual and the enforcement of labour laws is possibly the shoddiest.

They acknowledge that the odds are stacked heavily against workers– notwithstanding Article 14 of the Indian Constitution guaranteeing citizens equality before law.

”It is an unequal fight,” says A D Nagpal, secretary of Hind Mazdoor Sabha, which is counted among India’s five major trade unions, and perhaps the only one not politically affiliated.

The view was echoed by a leading New Delhi-based human resource expert, C S Venkata Ratnam of International Management Institute, who compared the higher judiciary’s responses in each situation.

Redress ”is more quick” for industrialists and politicians than for ordinary people and industrial workers, Dr Ratnam remarked in a telephone interview with United News of India Special Correspondent Mukesh Jhangiani.

He pointed out how workers ”languish for years” before their cases come up for hearing, ”and decades before” they are disposed of.

Impressions like that abound in a society in which scholarship has yet to authentically grapple with realities and inform decision-making.

Experts say India has 134– 43 Central and 91 State– labour laws covering issues ranging from minimum wages to pension and provident fund, many entailing jail terms for violators.

The problem, they say, is that although violations are determined in thousands of cases, the process takes years and consequences are seldom effective in deterring employer misbehaviour.

Indian courts hardly ever award costs and compensatory damages– let alone punitive damages– or send unfair employers behind bars.

Even when incarceration may be unavoidable, authorities appear to bend way over backwards to spare offenders.

An employer arrested in Calcutta in 2003 for not paying provident fund dues and remanded to judicial custody was admitted instead to hospital until a bail was obtained three days later.

That this happened in a bastion of the supposedly pro-worker left, may only be a reflection of what happens elsewhere in India.

In UP, the management– not the victims– challenged the award in the Allahabad High Court, which adjudicated for ten years before holding in May 2005 that ”no interference is called for in the findings of the labour court.”

Observing that ”the termination of workmen in each of the above writ petitions was in violation of provisions of Section 6-N of the UP Industrial Disputes Act, 1947,” Justice Ashok Bhushan said the writ petitions lacked ”merit and are accordingly dismissed.”

With taxpayers still footing the bill, the UPSEB appealed to the nation’s highest court.

In December 2006, Supreme Court Judges S B Sinha and Markandey Katju dismissed the appeal ”on the ground of delay as also on merit.”

While the workmen awaited relief, what they got was a notice directing them to appear before a Labour Court in Agra on November 17, 2007, says advocate Anjani K Mishra who had represented them before the Apex Court.

In August 2007, a UPSEB executive engineer had petitioned the Labour Court citing a 19-year-old Supreme Court order about 800 employees who had been ”out of employment.”

In July 1990, Justices Ranganath Mishra, M M Punchchi and S C Agrawal had ordered their ‘re-employment’ ”without any claim for backwages or seniority if they approach the Board within three months from now.”

The case had been filed by an employees union but only two of the 800 workmen sought re-employment and one actually took it ”as per the principle laid down by the apex court,” the UPSEB acknowledged.

Oddly, the executive engineer argued that the three workmen had ”clearly suppressed the principle laid down” in the 1990 order.

There was nothing to show that the three workmen were even aware of the order the management was directed by the apex court to carry out.

On the other hand, there is no explanation why the management had failed to bring it up during the various stages of hearings which lasted more than 16 years after the order was given.

More than half a dozen adjournments later, Mishra says the matter is still pending in an Agra court. Presiding officer M L Sharma, who issued the notice, retired four months ago and is yet to be replaced.

In effect, the workmen fired 30 years ago, and ordered reinstated 16 years ago by the Labour Court at Agra, are yet to be reinstated or receive back wages or any relief until after a judge is posted.

”Every time we have approached the High Court for interim relief, the UPSEB lawyers have secured a stay,” Mishra said.

A lawyer for the UPSEB declined comment.

Critics say if this is workers’ plight with laws supposedly ‘protective,’ the thought of what might be in store under changes industry wants is bound to cause a shudder!

UNI MJ

 

 

 

People Need ‘Incorruptible’ Justice, Prez Tells Judges – By Mukesh Jhangiani

 

English: Balanced scale of Justice

Balanced scale of Justice (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

                                                                                               February 23, 2008

People Need ‘Incorruptible’ Justice, Prez Tells Judges*

By Mukesh Jhangiani
United News of India

New Delhi (UNI) – President Pratibha Patil today called for an easily accessible judicial machinery which dispenses ”affordable and incorruptible justice” to the people.

”We need to have in place a judicial machinery which is easily accessible and dispenses affordable and incorruptible justice to the people,” she said inaugurating a conference on Judicial Reforms.

Noting that India’s judicial administration is not without ”blemishes,” Mrs Patil stressed the need to ”introspect whether our judicial machinery has lived up to” expectations.

The event presided over by India’s Chief Justice K G Balakrishnan was addressed among others by Law and Justice Minister Hans Raj Bhardwaj and Bar Council of India chairman Gopakumaran Nair.

President Patil warned against letting the common man ”take law into his own hand,” stressing that ”the formal adjudicatory machinery has to reign supreme.”

She said, ”We cannot allow a situation where the common man is tempted to take law into his own hand and subscribe to the deviant culture of the lynch mob.”

The two-day conference organised by a Confederation of Indian Bar to discuss the ”disquieting” delay in delivery of justice has more than half of Supreme Court judges listed among speakers.

The meet is being held at a time when the judicial system has been a focus of much public debate and comment, arising from such concerns as court delays, case arrears, shortage of judges, unending judicial vacancies and opacity, especially in the area of judicial hiring and accountability.

Alluding presumably to numerous conferences and seminars on reforming the justice system that appear to get nowhere, President Patil remarked: ”We talk incessantly about delays.”

”But now the time has arrived to launch a crusade against the scourge of arrears. Both the Bar and the Bench as equal partners in the administration of justice must address themselves to this problem.”

”Admittedly,” the President went on, ”the realm of judicial administration is not without its own share of inadequacies and blemishes.

”Time has come when we need to seriously introspect whether our judicial machinery has lived up to its expectations of walking the enlightened way by securing complete justice to all and standing out as the beacon of truth, faith and hope.”

Touching on a key issue, Mrs Patil said, ”case disposals are excruciatingly time consuming. This agonising delay has rendered the common man’s knock on the doors of justice a frustrating experience.

The issue of delay in courts has been debated for decades, without much avail. Experts believe lawmakers must take an initiative to sharpen laws and make them truly deterrent.

Mrs Patil called for making legal procedures ”simple, streamlined, rational, easily understandable and commonsensical.”

She reminded members of her erstwhile tribe that lawyers were trustees of justice and ”must set high standards of probity and rectitude.”

On another key area, she said citizens’ access to law ”remains limited due to prohibitive costs of quality legal advice. It is commonplace to hear that law has become the luxury of the rich.

”Legal aid can go a long way in helping the indigents secure justice,” she said adding that the present system ”needs to be improved.”

She reminded that alternative dispute resolution mechanisms need to be encouraged, but ”cannot aspire to substitute the formal courts.”

She said she recently came across the Karnataka High Court’s Bangalore Mediation Centre where 86 mediators had settled more than 1,000 cases in a year, taking an average 131 minutes per case– which ”is worthy of emulation.”

Justice Balakrishnan concurred that Judicial Reforms was a subject ”so much of talked about but too little done.”

Balakrishnan said India had a nationwide network of more than 14,000 courts– about 12,500 judge working strength– dealing with 40 million cases.

He said each judge handled on an average nearly 4,000 cases, which ”is too high as compared to the average load per-Judge in other countries.”

He acknowledged that ”the general impression of the people is that a large number of cases are being delayed and, if any case is filed, it would take years to get a relief.

”This impression about the performance of Indian Judiciary is not fully correct,” Justice Balakrishnan asserted, but went on to acknowledge that some 60 per cent cases were more than a year old.

He said 90 per cent of delayed cases were pending in subordinate courts.

He suggested setting up a national planning and management system for administration of justice and added that the Bhopal-based National Judicial Academy was preparing a case management system to avoid delays.

He also suggested:

— Legislative reform to remove the bottlenecks that adversely affect adjudication;

— Strengthening the Bar;

— Strengthening legal education;

— Legislative reform to strengthen judges’ powers to control judicial processes to ensure just and efficient outcomes in line with international reforms; and

— Satisfactory framework for judicial accountability.

He offered the suggestions as ”broad outlines” to be discussed and designed by competent people.

Justice Balakrishnan also drew attention to a source of overcrowding in courts.

”In a large number of cases pending in Courts, especially in higher Courts, government is one of the parties either as defendant or as appellant.”

He blamed such litigations on lack of proper governmental administration, pointing out that if authorities took impartial decisions, citizens would not normally be driven to litigation.

”Lack of proper and good governance largely contributes to the number of cases in subordinate courts,” Justice Balakrishnan said.

”When it comes to disposal of cases, the delay is disquieting,” Confederation president Pravin Parekh said, citing case arrears now close to 30 million.

He counted 46,926 cases pending in the apex court, 37,00,223 cases pending in high courts and 2,52,85,982 cases pending in district and subordinate courts.

The seminar will be attended by some 1400 delegates, including 14 sitting judges of the apex court, which has a strength of 26.

UNI MJ KD BST1837